Guidelines for authors

The submitted manuscripts should fit into one of the following categories: original article, scientific note, literature review and letter to the Editor. Manuscripts will be accepted for publication, when, for the various categories, they have the following characteristics:

  • Original article: presents innovative results (not published in another scientific journal) of high scientific quality. Different aspects of the work will be evaluated on a semi-quantitative scale, aiming to minimize the subjectivity inherent to the evaluation of scientific production.
  • Scientific note: deals with a theme and/or presents original results that justify rapid publication to the benefit of the scientific or governmental community. Manuscripts will be rejected if they show only preliminary results, or report finished studies that produced few results. Manuscripts will also be rejected when they have been prepared by dividing up assays/experiments from a broader study.
  • Literature review: constitutes a broad survey of the literature on a specific topic, accompanied by a critical appreciation of the results from dozens of studies. The author(s) usually has/have recognized experience in the subject covered.
  • Letter to the Editor: expresses a personal or institutional point of view, with supporting arguments and with no offence to third parties. In this case, the editors will only provide any grammatical or stylistic corrections needed, the opinions expressed in the text being the exclusive responsibility of the author(s).

Front page


The title should be concise and informative since titles are often used in systems for information retrieval. Try not to use abbreviations and formulas.

Author names and affiliations.

Present the authors' affiliation below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after each author's name and before the respective address. Example: aDepartamento de Entomologia, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos (SP) Brazil.

Corresponding author.

Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of review for publication. Provide e-mail address.

Present/permanent address.

If an author has moved since the work described in the article was carried out or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' may be indicated as a footnote to that person's name, using superscript Arabic numerals.


Highlights are required. They consist of three to seven bullet points that give the main findings of the article. Add just after the addresses. Use at most 95 characters, including spaces, for each bullet point.


It should not be a shortened version of the article. The abstract may not have material and methods. It should mention the importance of the work and its main results and conclusions (at most 300 words).


Immediately after the abstract, provide up to eight keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general or multiple concepts. Only use abbreviations that are firmly established in the field and do not use words that are included in the title.

Author's Declaration

This declaration must be printed, signed and scanned (or digitally signed). The declaration certifies that there is no conflict of ethical or financial interest involved in the manuscript or its authors. It also vouches that the manuscript does not breach the authorial rights of other parties or the guidelines adopted by Nematoda to avoid plagiarism or any other lack of scientific ethics.

Manuscript Preparation

We strongly encourage authors to send the manuscript to a qualified reviser or language editing company for revision before submitting it, or have it translated by a qualified person or company. We suggest a few names at the end of this document. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced in processing the article. In particular, do not justify text or hyphenate words. Use boldface, Italics, subscripts, superscripts when necessary. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each table instead of a grid for each row. After References add the legends of the figures, then the tables and after that the figures. Each figure must be in a separate page. See also the section on Electronic artwork. Use Times New Roman, size 12 throughout the manuscript. Add line numbers, restarting at each page.

Manuscript structure

Sections and subsections - Divide your article into clearly defined sections from the Introduction to Conclusions. Subsection headings should be in Italics and boldface. Each heading should appear on a separate line. The desirable characteristics of each section can be seen in the Reviewer's Form.


State the objectives of the study and provide background, avoiding a detailed literature review or a summary of the results.

Material and Methods

Provide enough detail to enable the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference, describing only important modifications.

Results and Discussion

The results should be clear and concise. The discussion should explore the importance of the results rather than repeating them. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature. Start the first paragraph of the discussion by summarizing the findings.


The main conclusions of the study should be presented in a short section without containing any discussion of the results, hypotheses or general considerations.


Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the References. List the individuals or institutions that provided assistance or support during the research.

Appendices, Formulas and Equations

If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Make sure that each appendix has a heading and is cited in the text, e.g., “Appendix A”.

Formulas and equations should be cited (e.g., “Equation 1”) and numbered consecutively, according to their appearance in the text.

Formulas and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: (Equation A.1) or “Equation A.2” and so on, while those in a subsequent appendix should appear as “Equation B.1” and so on.

Units and Nomenclature

Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions. Use the international system of units (SI) ( If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI. Consult IUPAC: Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry: for further information.

For organisms, the complete taxonomic name including the full authority of description must be given for the first mention in the text. For exceptions to this rule, such as names of bacteria and viruses, consult the editor. Date is not needed.

Wherever a trade name for a pesticide or other product exists, it should be used. Include the chemical name or active ingredient of the pesticide or other product in parentheses after the first mention of the trade name.


Abbreviations that are not standard should be avoided as much as possible, and they must be stated in a footnote on the first page of the article. Abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined the first time they are mentioned there, as well as in the footnote. Make sure the abbreviations are consistent throughout the article.

For the sake of consistency, the journal uses U.S. English, so please spell-check the manuscript accordingly. We suggest the latest edition of Webster's New International Dictionary for spelling of words. Use numerals with standard units of measurement and for any number above nine.


Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article, using superscript Arabic numbers. You can use word-processing options for this. Do not include footnotes in the Reference section

Figure headings

Figures must be numbered consecutively according to their appearance in the text. Make sure that each illustration is cited in the text (e.g., “Figure 1”) and has a heading, provided separately, not attached to the figure. If the figure is a plate composed by small pictures, each of them must be also cited in the text and lettered with low cap letters (e.g. a, b, c, etc). In the plate, the letter should appear in a white circle with black border, in the left corner, as shown below. A heading should be a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations to a minimum, but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.



Tables must be numbered consecutively according to their appearance in the text. Make sure that each table has a heading and is cited in the text, e.g., “Table 1”. Place footnotes always below the table body and indicate them with superscript lower-case letters. Do not use vertical rules. Presentation of data in figures should be favored. Do not present data in tables that duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.


Citation in text

Make sure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Unpublished results and personal communications are not accepted in the reference list, but can be mentioned in the text. Citation of a reference as 'in press' means the work has been accepted for publication.

Reference links

Please check that information provided in the references is correct, because errors can prevent link creation. When copying references, check for existing errors. We encourage you to use the DOI.

Web references

The full URL should be given and the date when the reference was accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.) should also be given.

References in the same issue

Please make sure that the words “this issue” are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same issue of Nematoda.

Reference formatting

Where applicable, complete author names (without et al.), journal/book title, chapter/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the paging must be present. We encourage DOI use. Do not use ALL CAPITALS for author names in either the text or the reference section, except in the case of the abbreviations of institutional authors (e.g., WHO). Note that missing data will be highlighted at the proof stage for the author to correct. The references should be arranged according to the following guidelines and examples:

Reference style

All citations in the text must be formatted as follows:

  1. Single author: the author's last name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity), followed by the citation number between superscript brackets.
  2. Two authors: both authors’ last names joined by "&", followed by the citation number between superscript brackets.
  3. Three or more authors: first author’s last name followed by 'et al.' and by the citation number between superscript brackets.

References should be arranged in order of appearance in the text. Give each a number between superscript brackets and use this number in the reference list.


  • "Kramer et al.[1] have recently shown ...."
  • "Kramer et al.[2, 3] have studied..."
  • "Coin & Domingues[4] showed that..."
  • "Kramer[5] and Souza[6] stated that..."
  • "As demonstrated by Gomes[7]."
  • "As demonstrated by Gomes[7] and Vasconcelos[8]."
  • ..."as different authors have shown[2, 9, 10, 11]


  • Reference to a journal publication:
    1. Castrillo LA, Ugine TA, Filotas MJ, Sanderson JP, Vandenberg JD, Wraight SP. 2008. Molecular characterization and comparative virulence of Beauveria bassiana isolates (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) associated with the greenhouse shore fly, Scatellatenui costa (Diptera: Ephydridae). Biological Control, 45: 154-162
  • Reference to a book or report:
    2. Strunk W Jr, White EB. 2000. The elements of style. 4th ed. Longman, New York, 120 pp.
  • Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
    3. Mettam GR, Adams LB. 2009. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ (eds.). Introduction to the electronic age. E-Publishing Inc., New York, p. 281-304.
  • Reference to work presented in scientific meetings (abstracts) (only acceptable if the work has not been published in a peer-reviewed journal or book):
    4. Machado LA, Leite LG, Goulart RM, Guedes C, Tavares FM. 2002. Pathogenicity of Heterorhabditis spp. and Steinernema spp. against the citrus root weevil, Naupactus sp. In: Society for Invertebrate Pathology – SIP. Program and Abstracts of the 35th Annual Meeting of the Society for Invertebrate Pathology, Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil, 55 pp.
  • Reference to thesis and dissertations:
    5. Del Valle EE. 2004. Evaluation and pressure selection of high temperature tolerant entomopathogenic nematodes aiming to control the guava weevil (Conotrachelus psidii) [dissertation]. Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Campos dos Goytacazes, Brazil, 55 pp.
  • References to web pages:
    6. Fundecitrus. 2002. Mosca-das-frutas [on line]. Accessed on May 24, 2014. Available from:
  • References to institutions (without authors):
    7. United Nations. 2014. World Statistics Pocketbook, 2014 edition. United Nations, New York.


Electronic artwork, general points

  • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing.
  • Use Times New Roman, size 10.
  • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
  • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
  • Provide list of captions to illustrations separately.
  • Set the dimensions of illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the printed version.
  • Submit each illustration in a separate file.


If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel), then please supply 'as is' in the native document format. On the other hand, if the application used is other than one available in Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):

  • EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all fonts used.
  • TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
  • TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black and white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
  • TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.

Please do not:

  • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG);
  • Supply files with insufficient resolution;
  • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork

Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF, JPEG, EPS or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If you submit usable color figures then Nematoda will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e. g., and other sites) irrespective of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version.

Please note: Because of technical complications which can arise by converting color figures to 'gray scale', please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.

Use of the Digital Object Identifier

DOI numbers (Digital Object Identifiers) are unique alpha-numeric combination assigned to an article. With a DOI number the article can always be located. A DOI specifies not only the location of an online object, but its content. Therefore a DOI never changes, and it remains associated with the article even if the article is changed in its origin. All articles will receive a DOI number when they are approved for publication.

Proof correction

The corresponding author will receive an e-mail with the final version of the manuscript (proof) in PDF. The corresponding author must carefully check the manuscript’s text, figure, tables and answer questions from the Editor.

The corrected proof must be returned within 48 hours, to avoid delay in publication. The approved proofs will be posted online in a section “ahead of print”. Proof reading is exclusively the authors’ responsibility.

Suggested Revisers/Translators:

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